My research combines modern Virtual Reality (VR) technologies with traditional behavioural and neuro-cognitive measures to investigate human cognition, perception, and performance. My work focuses on adverse effects associated with the use of VR applications, such as nasuea, dizziness, or disorientation - a phenomenon commonly referred to as visually induced motion sickness. In addition, I use neuro-cognitive and behavioural measures to explore the sensation of self-motion in VR and I am involved in KITE’s driving simulation program. Overall, my research has a strong applied component and provides a balance between theory and application.
MOTION SICKNESS IN REAL AND VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS
Motion sickness is a common phenomenon when travelling. Interestingly, users of VR applications can experience very similar symptoms, a phenomenon referred to as visually induced motion sickness. My research aims at understanding the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and finding effective, non-medical treatments in order to prevent or minimize it.
SELF-MOTION PERCEPTION (VECTION) IN VR
VR users often feel that they are moving through the virtual world, although they remain stationary and physical motion is typically missing. This sensation is called vection and is a crucial part of creating a compelling VR experience. My research explores factors that contribute to the sensation of vection (age, sensory cues) and investigate its cognitive mechanisms using behavioral and neuro-scientific measures.
DRIVING SIMULATION RESEARCH
Driving is an essential part of our daily lives. However, road safety is still a major concern, making driving the most dangerous mode of transportation. The goal of my research is to investigate parameters that affect driving safety (ageing, drowsiness, medication) and to find solutions that will increase on-road safety.
Peer-reviewed journals, conference papers, book chapters
Hassan, A.R., Kabir, M., Keshavarz, B., & Yadollahi, A. (submitted). Development of a probability model for high-resolution detection of drowsiness using Electroencephalogram. Annals of Biomedical Engineering.
Igoshina, L., Russo, F., Haycock, B., Shewaga, R., & Keshavarz, B. (submitted). The effect of simulator sickness on driving performance in a high-fidelity simulator. Applied Ergonomics.
Campos, J.L., El-Khechen Richandi, G., Coahran, M., Fraser, L., Taati, B., & Keshavarz, B. (submitted). Virtual Hand Illusion in younger and older adults. Journal of Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies Engineering.
Thawer, Z., Campos, J.L., Keshavarz, B., Shewaga, R., Furlan, A.D., Fernie, G., Haycock, B. (submitted). Development of a simulation-based experimental research framework for the characterization of cannabis-related driving impairment. Safety.
Murovec, B., Spaniol, J., Campos, J. L., & Keshavarz, B. (2021). Multisensory Effects on Illusory Self-Motion (Vection): The Role of Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Cues. Multisensory Research, 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1163/22134808-bja10058
Keshavarz, B., Murovec, B., Mohanathas, N., & Golding, J. F. (2021). The Visually Induced Motion Sickness Susceptibility Questionnaire (VIMSSQ): Estimating individual susceptibility to motion sickness-like symptoms when using visual devices". Human Factors. Online first, doi: 10.1177/00187208211008687
Cha, Y.-H., Golding, J., Keshavarz, B., Furman, J., Kim, J.-S., Lopez-Escamez, J. A., Magnusson, M., Yates, B. J., Lawson, B. D., Staab, J., & Bisdorff, A. (2021). Motion sickness diagnostic criteria: Consensus document of the classification committee of the Bárány society. Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation. https://doi.org/10.3233/VES-200005
Golding, J. F., Rafiq, A., & Keshavarz, B. (2021). Predicting Individual Susceptibility to Visually Induced Motion Sickness by Questionnaire. Frontiers in Virtual Reality, 2. https://doi.org/10.3389/frvir.2021.576871
D’Amour, S., Harris, L. R., Berti, S., & Keshavarz, B. (2021). The role of cognitive factors and personality traits in the perception of illusory self-motion (vection). Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-020-02228-3
Grove, C.R., Anson, E.R., & Keshavarz, B. (2021). Perceiving Is Believing: Understanding Verticality Perception, Navigation, and Motion Perception in Healthy and Impaired Populations. 2021 APTA Combined Sections Meeting (CSM).
Hemmerich, W. A., Keshavarz, B., & Hecht, H. (2020). Visually Induced Motion Sickness on the Horizon: The Role of World-Centered vs Observer-Centered Reference Information. Frontiers in Virtual Reality, 1. https://doi.org/10.3389/frvir.2020.582095
Peck, K., Russo, F., Campos, J. L., & Keshavarz, B. (2020). Examining potential effects of arousal, valence, and likability of music on visually induced motion sickness. Experimental Brain Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-020-05871-2
Berti, S., & Keshavarz, B. (2020). Neuropsychological Approaches to Visually-Induced Vection: An Overview and Evaluation of Neuroimaging and Neurophysiological Studies. Multisensory Research, 1(aop), 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1163/22134808-bja10035
Keshavarz, B., Campos, J. L., & Berti, S. (2019). Visually induced motion sensations: Preface to a special issue. Displays, 58, 1–2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.displa.2019.04.003
Keshavarz, B., Philipp-Muller, A. E., Hemmerich, W., Riecke, B. E., & Campos, J. L. (2019). The effect of visual motion stimulus characteristics on vection and visually induced motion sickness. Displays, 58, 71–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.displa.2018.07.005
Berti, S., Haycock, B., Adler, J., & Keshavarz, B. (2019). Early cortical processing of vection-inducing visual stimulation as measured by event-related brain potentials (ERP). Displays, 58, 56–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.displa.2018.10.002
Keshavarz, B., Saryazdi, R., Campos, J.L., Golding, J.F. (2019). Introducing the VIMSSQ: Measuring susceptibility to visually induced motion sickness. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 63(1), 2267-2271.
Hassan, A.R., Kabir, M., Keshavarz, B., Taati, B., & Yadollahi, A. (2019). Sigmoid Wake Probability Model for High-Resolution Detection of Drowsiness Using Electroencephalogram. 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 7080-7083.
Campos, J., El-Khechen, G., Taati, B., & Keshavarz, B. (2018). The Rubber Hand Illusion in Healthy Younger and Older Adults. Multisensory Research, 31(6), 537-555. doi: 10.1163/22134808-00002614
Keshavarz, B., Ramkhalawansingh, R., Haycock, B., Shahab, S., & Campos, J. (2018). Comparing simulator sickness in younger and older adults during simulated driving under different multisensory conditions. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology & Bahaviour, 54, 47-62. doi: 10.1016/j.trf.2018.01.007
Muth, E., Keshavarz, B., Smart, L. J., So, R., & Beadle, S. (2018). Discussion Panel: Motion Sickness in Virtual Environments. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 62(1), 2043–2046. Doi:10.1177/1541931218621461
D’Amour, S., Bos, J. E., & Keshavarz, B. (2017). The efficacy of airflow and seat vibration on reducing visually induced motion sickness. Experimental Brain Research, 235(9), 2811-2820. doi:10.1007/s00221-017-5009-1
Keshavarz, B., Speck, M., Haycock, B., & Berti, S. (2017). The effect of different presentation settings on vection and its interaction with motion direction and Field Independence. iPerception, 8(3), 2041669517707768. doi:10.1177/2041669517707768
Keshavarz, B., Novak, A. C., Hettinger, L. J., Stoffregen, T. A., & Campos, J. L. (2017). Passive Restraint Reduces Visually Induced Motion Sickness in Older Adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 23(1), 85-99. doi:10.1037/xap0000107
Keshavarz, B., Campos, J. L., DeLucia, P. R., & Oberfeld, D. (2017). Estimating the relative weights of visual and auditory tau versus heuristic-based cues for time-to-contact judgments in realistic, familiar scenes by older and younger adults. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 79(3), 929-944. doi:10.3758/s13414-016-1270-9
Ramkhalawansingh, R., Keshavarz, B., Haycock, B., Shahab, S., & Campos, J. L. (2017). Examining the Effect of Age on Visual–Vestibular Self-Motion Perception Using a Driving Paradigm. Perception, 46(5), 566-585 (published online first 2016). doi:10.1177/0301006616675883
Ramkhalawansingh, R., Keshavarz, B., Haycock, B., Shahab, S., & Campos, J. (2016). Age-related differences on visual-auditory self-motion perception. Frontiers in Psychology, 7: 595. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00595
Keshavarz, B. (2016). Exploring Behavioral Methods to Reduce Visually Induced Motion Sickness in Virtual Environments. In S. Lackey & R. Shumaker (Eds.), Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality (pp. 147–155). Springer International Publishing.
Keshavarz, B., Campos, J., & Berti, S. (2015). Vection lies in the brain of the beholder: EEG parameters as an objective measurement of vection. Frontiers in Psychology, 6: 1581. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01581
Keshavarz, B., Riecke, B.E., Hettinger, L.J., & Campos, J.L. (2015). Vection and visually induced motion sickness: How are they related? Frontiers in Psychology, 6: 472. Doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00472
Keshavarz, B., Stelzmann, D., Paillard, A., & Hecht, H. (2015). Visually induced motion sickness can be alleviated by pleasant odors. Experimental Brain Research, 233(5), 1353-64.doi:10.1007/s00221-015-4209-9
Hecht. H., Shaffer, D., Keshavarz, B., & Flint, M. (2014). Slope estimation and viewing distance of observer. Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 769(6), 1729-1738. doi:10.3758/s13414-014-0702-7
Keshavarz, B., Hettinger, L., Kennedy, R. S., & Campos, J. (2014). Demonstrating the potential for dynamic auditory stimulation to contribute to motion sickness. PLoS ONE, 9(7): e101016. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101016
Keshavarz, B. & Hecht, H. (2014). Pleasant music as a countermeasure against visually induced motion sickness. Applied Ergonomics, 45(3), 521-527. doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2013.07.009
Keshavarz, B., Hettinger, L., Vena, D., & Campos, J. (2014). Combined effects of auditory and visual cues on the perception of vection and motion sickness. Experimental Brain Research, 232(3), 827–836. doi:10.1007/s00221-013-3793-9
Keshavarz, B., & Berti, S. (2014). Integration of sensory information precedes the sensation of vection: A combined behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) study. Behavioural Brain Research, 259, 131–136. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2013.10.045
Keshavarz, B., Hecht, H., Lawson, B. D. (2014). Visually-Induced Motion Sickness: Causes, Characteristics, and Countermeasures. Stanney, K. M., & Hale, K. S. Handbook of virtual environments: Design, implementations, and applications. 2nd edition: 647-698.
Hettinger, L. J., Schmidt-Daly, T. N., Jones, D. L., Keshavarz, B. (2014). Illusory self-motion in virtual environments. Stanney, K. M., & Hale, K. S. Handbook of virtual environments: Design, implementations, and applications. 2nd edition: 435-465.
Keshavarz, B., & Hecht, H. (2012). Stereoscopic viewing enhances visually induced motion sickness but sound does not. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 21(2), 213–228. doi:10.1162/PRES_a_00102
Keshavarz, B. Hecht, H. (2012). Visually induced motion sickness and presence in videogames: The role of sound. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 56(1): 1763-1767.
Keshavarz, B., & Hecht, H. (2011). Axis rotation and visually induced motion sickness: the role of combined roll, pitch, and yaw motion. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 82(11), 1023–1029. doi:10.3357/ASEM.3078.2011
Keshavarz, B., & Hecht, H. (2011). Validating an efficient method to quantify motion sickness. Human Factors, 53(4), 415–426.
Keshavarz, B., Hecht, H., & Zschutschke, L. (2011). Keshavarz, B., Hecht, H., & Zschutschke, L. (2011). Intra-visual conflict in visually induced motion sickness. Displays, 32(4), 181–188. doi:10.1016/j.displa.2011.05.009
Keshavarz, B., Landwehr, K., Baures, R., Oberfeld, D., Hecht, H., & Benguigui, N. (2010). Age-correlated incremental consideration of velocity. Ecological Psychology, 22(3), 212–221. doi:10.1080/10407413.2010.496670
INVITED TALKS AND PRESENTATIONS
Selected invited talks at conferences and institutions
Research at KITE – Motion sickness in the context of (simulated) driving (2019). Ingolstadt, Germany
TECHNISCHE HOCHSCHULE INGOLSTADT
Driving simulation and motion sickness studies at KITE-Toronto Rehab (2019). Ingolstadt, Germany
JOHANNES GUTENBERG UNIVERSITY MAINZ
The benefits and challenges of Virtual Reality applications (2019). Mainz, Germany.
UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Motion sickness in VR: Causes, characteristics, and treatments (2019). Vancouver, B.C.
SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY
Motion sickness in VR: Causes, characteristics, and treatments (2019. Vancouver, B.C.
FIRST CONGRESS ON MOTION SICKNESS
Visually Induced Motion Sickness: An overview [plenary lecture] (2019). First Congress on Motion Sickness and the 15th European Society for Clinical Evaluation of Balance Disorders Meeting, Akureyri, Iceland.
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON VESTIBULAR REHABILITATION
Causes and characteristics of visually induced motion sickness [plenary lecture] (2018). Chicago, IL, USA.
THE CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL OF PHILADELPHIA
Driving simulation studies and simulator sickness research at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute (2018). Center for Injury and Prevention at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Simulator sickness: Underlying causes and characteristics (2018). Sindelfingen, Germany.
HUMAN FACTORS AND ERGONOMICS SOCIETY ANNUAL MEETING
Motion Sickness in Virtual Environments [discussion panel] (2018). Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Selected ongoing research studies
BODY TEMPERATURE AND MOTION SICKNESS
Airflow has been shown to successfully reduce motion sickness in VR. In this study, I want to investigate the mechanisms behind this effect by recording participants body temperature during a simulated driving task.
Several sensory cues affect the sensation of self-motion in VR. Here, I will investigate how vision, hearing, and touching alters vection and whether this changes as we age.
Drowsiness is one of the Top 5 causes for car crashes. The goal of this project is to identify the best physiological measure that can predict episodes of drowsiness while driving.
Interested in participating in my research studies? Click below.