top of page


My research combines modern Virtual Reality (VR) technologies with traditional behavioural and neuro-cognitive measures to investigate human cognition, perception, and performance. My work focuses on adverse effects associated with the use of VR applications, such as nasuea, dizziness, or disorientation - a phenomenon commonly referred to as visually induced motion sickness. In addition, I use neuro-cognitive and behavioural measures to explore the sensation of self-motion in VR and I am involved in KITE’s driving simulation program. Overall, my research has a strong applied component and provides a balance between theory and application.

Thinking Man on Couch
Virtual Reality Device
Vintage Car Interior


Motion sickness is a common phenomenon when travelling. Interestingly, users of VR applications can experience very similar symptoms, a phenomenon referred to as visually induced motion sickness. My research aims at understanding the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and finding effective, non-medical treatments in order to prevent or minimize it.


VR users often feel that they are moving through the virtual world, although they remain stationary and physical motion is typically missing. This sensation is called vection and is a crucial part of creating a compelling VR experience. My research explores factors that contribute to the sensation of vection (age, sensory cues) and investigate its cognitive mechanisms using behavioral and neuro-scientific measures.


Driving is an essential part of our daily lives. However, road safety is still a major concern, making driving the most dangerous mode of transportation. The goal of my research is to investigate parameters that affect driving safety (ageing, drowsiness, medication) and to find solutions that will increase on-road safety.

Research: Research


Peer-reviewed journals, conference papers, book chapters


Riecke, B. E., Murovec, B., Campos, J. L., & Keshavarz, B. (2023). Beyond the Eye: Multisensory Contributions to the Sensation of Illusory Self-Motion (Vection). Multisensory Research, 1(aop), 1–38.


Andrievskaia, P., Berti, S., Spaniol, J., & Keshavarz, B. (2023). Exploring neurophysiological correlates of visually induced motion sickness using electroencephalography (EEG). Experimental Brain Research, 241(10), 2463–2473.


Lukacova, I., Keshavarz, B., & Golding, J. F. (2023). Measuring the susceptibility to visually induced motion sickness and its relationship with vertigo, dizziness, migraine, syncope and personality traits. Experimental Brain Research, 241(5), 1381–1391.


Kooijman, L., Berti, S., Asadi, H., Nahavandi, S., & Keshavarz, B. (2023). Measuring vection: A review and critical evaluation of different methods for quantifying illusory self-motion. Behavior Research Methods.


Boury, H., Albert, M., Chen, R. H. C., Chow, J. C. L., DaCosta, R., Hoffman, M. M., Keshavarz, B., Kontos, P., McAndrews, M. P., Protze, S., & Gagliardi, A. R. (2023). Exploring the merits of research performance measures that comply with the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment and strategies to overcome barriers of adoption: Qualitative interviews with administrators and researchers. Health Research Policy and Systems, 21(1), 43.


Gagliardi, A. R., Chen, R. H. C., Boury, H., Albert, M., Chow, J., DaCosta, R. S., Hoffman, M., Keshavarz, B., Kontos, P., Liu, J., McAndrews, M. P., & Protze, S. (2023). DORA-compliant measures of research quality and impact to assess the performance of researchers in biomedical institutions: Review of published research, international best practice and Delphi survey. PLOS ONE, 18(5), e0270616.


Keshavarz, B., Murovec, B., Mohanathas, N., & Golding, J. F. (2023). The Visually Induced Motion Sickness Susceptibility Questionnaire (VIMSSQ): Estimating Individual Susceptibility to Motion Sickness-Like Symptoms When Using Visual Devices. Human Factors, 65(1), 107–124.


Keshavarz, B., Umatheva, N., & Peck, K. (2023). Investigating the Role of Vection, Presence, and Stress on Visually Induced Motion Sickness*. In J. Y. C. Chen & G. Fragomeni (Eds.), Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality (pp. 619–633). Springer Nature Switzerland.

*Best paper award


Igoshina, E., Russo, F. A., Shewaga, R., Haycock, B., & Keshavarz, B. (2022). The relationship between simulator sickness and driving performance in a high-fidelity simulator. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 89, 478–487.


Murovec, B., Spaniol, J., Campos, J. L., & Keshavarz, B. (2022). Enhanced vection in older adults: Evidence for age-related effects in multisensory vection experiences. Perception, 3010066221113770.


Keshavarz, B., Peck, K., Rezaei, S., & Taati, B. (2022). Detecting and predicting visually induced motion sickness with physiological measures in combination with machine learning techniques. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 176, 14–26.


Thawer, Z., Campos, J. L., Keshavarz, B., Shewaga, R., Furlan, A. D., Fernie, G., & Haycock, B. (2022). Development of a simulation-based experimental research framework for the characterization of cannabis-related driving impairment. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 13, 100561.


Keshavarz, B., & Golding, J. F. (2022). Motion sickness: current concepts and management. Current Opinion in Neurology, 35(1), 107–112.


Igoshina, E., Russo, F. A., Haycock, B., & Keshavarz, B. (2022). Comparing the Effect of Airflow Direction on Simulator Sickness and User Comfort in a High-Fidelity Driving Simulator. In J. Y. C. Chen & G. Fragomeni (Eds.), Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality: Applications in Education, Aviation and Industry (pp. 208–220). Springer International Publishing.


Campos, J. L., El-Khechen Richandi, G., Coahran, M., Fraser, L. E., Taati, B., & Keshavarz, B. (2021). Virtual Hand Illusion in younger and older adults. Journal of Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies Engineering, 8, 20556683211059388.

Murovec, B., Spaniol, J., Campos, J. L., & Keshavarz, B. (2021). Multisensory Effects on Illusory Self-Motion (Vection): The Role of Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Cues. Multisensory Research, 1–22.

Cha, Y.-H., Golding, J., Keshavarz, B., Furman, J., Kim, J.-S., Lopez-Escamez, J. A., Magnusson, M., Yates, B. J., Lawson, B. D., Staab, J., & Bisdorff, A. (2021). Motion sickness diagnostic criteria: Consensus document of the classification committee of the Bárány society. Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation.


Golding, J. F., Rafiq, A., & Keshavarz, B. (2021). Predicting Individual Susceptibility to Visually Induced Motion Sickness by Questionnaire. Frontiers in Virtual Reality, 2.


D’Amour, S., Harris, L. R., Berti, S., & Keshavarz, B. (2021). The role of cognitive factors and personality traits in the perception of illusory self-motion (vection). Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics.


Grove, C.R., Anson, E.R., & Keshavarz, B. (2021). Perceiving Is Believing: Understanding Verticality Perception, Navigation, and Motion Perception in Healthy and Impaired Populations. 2021 APTA Combined Sections Meeting (CSM).


Hemmerich, W. A., Keshavarz, B., & Hecht, H. (2020). Visually Induced Motion Sickness on the Horizon: The Role of World-Centered vs Observer-Centered Reference Information. Frontiers in Virtual Reality, 1.


Peck, K., Russo, F., Campos, J. L., & Keshavarz, B. (2020). Examining potential effects of arousal, valence, and likability of music on visually induced motion sickness. Experimental Brain Research.


Berti, S., & Keshavarz, B. (2020). Neuropsychological Approaches to Visually-Induced Vection: An Overview and Evaluation of Neuroimaging and Neurophysiological Studies. Multisensory Research, 1(aop), 1–34.


Keshavarz, B., Campos, J. L., & Berti, S. (2019). Visually induced motion sensations: Preface to a special issue. Displays, 58, 1–2.

Keshavarz, B., Philipp-Muller, A. E., Hemmerich, W., Riecke, B. E., & Campos, J. L. (2019). The effect of visual motion stimulus characteristics on vection and visually induced motion sickness. Displays, 58, 71–81.

Berti, S., Haycock, B., Adler, J., & Keshavarz, B. (2019). Early cortical processing of vection-inducing visual stimulation as measured by event-related brain potentials (ERP). Displays, 58, 56–65.

Keshavarz, B., Saryazdi, R., Campos, J.L., Golding, J.F. (2019). Introducing the VIMSSQ: Measuring susceptibility to visually induced motion sickness. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 63(1), 2267-2271.

Hassan, A.R., Kabir, M., Keshavarz, B., Taati, B., & Yadollahi, A. (2019). Sigmoid Wake Probability Model for High-Resolution Detection of Drowsiness Using Electroencephalogram. 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 7080-7083.


Campos, J., El-Khechen, G., Taati, B., & Keshavarz, B. (2018). The Rubber Hand Illusion in Healthy Younger and Older Adults. Multisensory Research, 31(6), 537-555. doi: 10.1163/22134808-00002614

Keshavarz, B., Ramkhalawansingh, R., Haycock, B., Shahab, S., & Campos, J. (2018). Comparing simulator sickness in younger and older adults during simulated driving under different multisensory conditions. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology & Bahaviour, 54, 47-62. doi: 10.1016/j.trf.2018.01.007

Muth, E., Keshavarz, B., Smart, L. J., So, R., & Beadle, S. (2018). Discussion Panel: Motion Sickness in Virtual Environments. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 62(1), 2043–2046. Doi:10.1177/1541931218621461


D’Amour, S., Bos, J. E., & Keshavarz, B. (2017). The efficacy of airflow and seat vibration on reducing visually induced motion sickness. Experimental Brain Research, 235(9), 2811-2820. doi:10.1007/s00221-017-5009-1

Keshavarz, B., Speck, M., Haycock, B., & Berti, S. (2017). The effect of different presentation settings on vection and its interaction with motion direction and Field Independence. iPerception, 8(3), 2041669517707768. doi:10.1177/2041669517707768

Keshavarz, B., Novak, A. C., Hettinger, L. J., Stoffregen, T. A., & Campos, J. L. (2017). Passive Restraint Reduces Visually Induced Motion Sickness in Older Adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 23(1), 85-99. doi:10.1037/xap0000107

Keshavarz, B., Campos, J. L., DeLucia, P. R., & Oberfeld, D. (2017). Estimating the relative weights of visual and auditory tau versus heuristic-based cues for time-to-contact judgments in realistic, familiar scenes by older and younger adults. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 79(3), 929-944. doi:10.3758/s13414-016-1270-9

Ramkhalawansingh, R., Keshavarz, B., Haycock, B., Shahab, S., & Campos, J. L. (2017). Examining the Effect of Age on Visual–Vestibular Self-Motion Perception Using a Driving Paradigm. Perception, 46(5), 566-585 (published online first 2016). doi:10.1177/0301006616675883


Ramkhalawansingh, R., Keshavarz, B., Haycock, B., Shahab, S., & Campos, J. (2016). Age-related differences on visual-auditory self-motion perception. Frontiers in Psychology, 7: 595. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00595

Keshavarz, B. (2016). Exploring Behavioral Methods to Reduce Visually Induced Motion Sickness in Virtual Environments. In S. Lackey & R. Shumaker (Eds.), Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality (pp. 147–155). Springer International Publishing.


Keshavarz, B., Campos, J., & Berti, S. (2015). Vection lies in the brain of the beholder: EEG parameters as an objective measurement of vection. Frontiers in Psychology, 6: 1581. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01581

Keshavarz, B., Riecke, B.E., Hettinger, L.J., & Campos, J.L. (2015). Vection and visually induced motion sickness: How are they related? Frontiers in Psychology, 6: 472. Doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00472

Keshavarz, B., Stelzmann, D., Paillard, A., & Hecht, H. (2015). Visually induced motion sickness can be alleviated by pleasant odors. Experimental Brain Research, 233(5), 1353-64.doi:10.1007/s00221-015-4209-9


Hecht. H., Shaffer, D., Keshavarz, B., & Flint, M. (2014). Slope estimation and viewing distance of observer. Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 769(6), 1729-1738. doi:10.3758/s13414-014-0702-7

Keshavarz, B., Hettinger, L., Kennedy, R. S., & Campos, J. (2014). Demonstrating the potential for dynamic auditory stimulation to contribute to motion sickness. PLoS ONE, 9(7): e101016.

Keshavarz, B. & Hecht, H. (2014). Pleasant music as a countermeasure against visually induced motion sickness. Applied Ergonomics, 45(3), 521-527. doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2013.07.009

Keshavarz, B., Hettinger, L., Vena, D., & Campos, J. (2014). Combined effects of auditory and visual cues on the perception of vection and motion sickness. Experimental Brain Research, 232(3), 827–836. doi:10.1007/s00221-013-3793-9

Keshavarz, B., & Berti, S. (2014). Integration of sensory information precedes the sensation of vection: A combined behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) study. Behavioural Brain Research, 259, 131–136. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2013.10.045

Keshavarz, B., Hecht, H., Lawson, B. D. (2014). Visually-Induced Motion Sickness: Causes, Characteristics, and Countermeasures. Stanney, K. M., & Hale, K. S. Handbook of virtual environments: Design, implementations, and applications. 2nd edition: 647-698.

Hettinger, L. J., Schmidt-Daly, T. N., Jones, D. L., Keshavarz, B. (2014). Illusory self-motion in virtual environments. Stanney, K. M., & Hale, K. S. Handbook of virtual environments: Design, implementations, and applications. 2nd edition: 435-465.


Keshavarz, B., & Hecht, H. (2012). Stereoscopic viewing enhances visually induced motion sickness but sound does not. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 21(2), 213–228. doi:10.1162/PRES_a_00102

Keshavarz, B. Hecht, H. (2012). Visually induced motion sickness and presence in videogames: The role of sound. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 56(1): 1763-1767.


Keshavarz, B., & Hecht, H. (2011). Axis rotation and visually induced motion sickness: the role of combined roll, pitch, and yaw motion. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 82(11), 1023–1029. doi:10.3357/ASEM.3078.2011

Keshavarz, B., & Hecht, H. (2011). Validating an efficient method to quantify motion sickness. Human Factors, 53(4), 415–426.

Keshavarz, B., Hecht, H., & Zschutschke, L. (2011). Keshavarz, B., Hecht, H., & Zschutschke, L. (2011). Intra-visual conflict in visually induced motion sickness. Displays, 32(4), 181–188. doi:10.1016/j.displa.2011.05.009


Keshavarz, B., Landwehr, K., Baures, R., Oberfeld, D., Hecht, H., & Benguigui, N. (2010). Age-correlated incremental consideration of velocity. Ecological Psychology, 22(3), 212–221. doi:10.1080/10407413.2010.496670



Selected invited talks at conferences and institutions


Research at KITE – Motion sickness in the context of (simulated) driving (2019). Ingolstadt, Germany


Driving simulation and motion sickness studies at KITE-Toronto Rehab (2019). Ingolstadt, Germany


The benefits and challenges of Virtual Reality applications (2019). Mainz, Germany.


Motion sickness in VR: Causes, characteristics, and treatments (2019). Vancouver, B.C.


Motion sickness in VR: Causes, characteristics, and treatments (2019. Vancouver, B.C.


Visually Induced Motion Sickness: An overview [plenary lecture] (2019). First Congress on Motion Sickness and the 15th European Society for Clinical Evaluation of Balance Disorders Meeting, Akureyri, Iceland.


Causes and characteristics of visually induced motion sickness [plenary lecture] (2018). Chicago, IL, USA.


Driving simulation studies and simulator sickness research at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute (2018). Center for Injury and Prevention at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA.


Simulator sickness: Underlying causes and characteristics (2018). Sindelfingen, Germany.


Motion Sickness in Virtual Environments [discussion panel] (2018). Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Research: List


Selected ongoing research studies

Image by Timo Müller
Image by Mario Calvo


Airflow has been shown to successfully reduce motion sickness in VR. In this study, I want to investigate the mechanisms behind this effect by recording participants body temperature during a simulated driving task.


Several sensory cues affect the sensation of self-motion in VR. Here, I will investigate how vision, hearing, and touching alters vection and whether this changes as we age.


Drowsiness is one of the Top 5 causes for car crashes. The goal of this project is to identify the best physiological measure that can predict episodes of drowsiness while driving.

Interested in participating in my research studies? Click below.

Research: Projects
bottom of page