MY RESEARCH

My research combines modern Virtual Reality (VR) technologies with traditional behavioural and neuro-cognitive measures to investigate human cognition, perception, and performance. My work focuses on adverse effects associated with the use of VR applications, such as nasuea, dizziness, or disorientation - a phenomenon commonly referred to as visually induced motion sickness. In addition, I use neuro-cognitive and behavioural measures to explore the sensation of self-motion in VR and I am involved in KITE’s driving simulation program. Overall, my research has a strong applied component and provides a balance between theory and application.

Thinking Man on Couch
Virtual Reality Device
Vintage Car Interior

MOTION SICKNESS IN REAL AND VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

Motion sickness is a common phenomenon when travelling. Interestingly, users of VR applications can experience very similar symptoms, a phenomenon referred to as visually induced motion sickness. My research aims at understanding the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and finding effective, non-medical treatments in order to prevent or minimize it.

SELF-MOTION PERCEPTION (VECTION) IN VR

VR users often feel that they are moving through the virtual world, although they remain stationary and physical motion is typically missing. This sensation is called vection and is a crucial part of creating a compelling VR experience. My research explores factors that contribute to the sensation of vection (age, sensory cues) and investigate its cognitive mechanisms using behavioral and neuro-scientific measures.

DRIVING SIMULATION RESEARCH

Driving is an essential part of our daily lives. However, road safety is still a major concern, making driving the most dangerous mode of transportation. The goal of my research is to investigate parameters that affect driving safety (ageing, drowsiness, medication) and to find solutions that will increase on-road safety.

 

PUBLISHED WORK

Peer-reviewed journals, conference papers, book chapters

2019

Keshavarz, B., Campos, J. L., & Berti, S. (2019). Visually induced motion sensations: Preface to a special issue. Displays, 58, 1–2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.displa.2019.04.003

Keshavarz, B., Philipp-Muller, A. E., Hemmerich, W., Riecke, B. E., & Campos, J. L. (2019). The effect of visual motion stimulus characteristics on vection and visually induced motion sickness. Displays, 58, 71–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.displa.2018.07.005

Berti, S., Haycock, B., Adler, J., & Keshavarz, B. (2019). Early cortical processing of vection-inducing visual stimulation as measured by event-related brain potentials (ERP). Displays, 58, 56–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.displa.2018.10.002

Keshavarz, B., Saryazdi, R., Campos, J.L., Golding, J.F. (2019). Introducing the VIMSSQ: Measuring susceptibility to visually induced motion sickness. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 63(1), 2267-2271.


Hassan, A.R., Kabir, M., Keshavarz, B., Taati, B., & Yadollahi, A. (2019). Sigmoid Wake Probability Model for High-Resolution Detection of Drowsiness Using Electroencephalogram. 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 7080-7083.

2018

Campos, J., El-Khechen, G., Taati, B., & Keshavarz, B. (2018). The Rubber Hand Illusion in Healthy Younger and Older Adults. Multisensory Research, 31(6), 537-555. doi: 10.1163/22134808-00002614

Keshavarz, B., Ramkhalawansingh, R., Haycock, B., Shahab, S., & Campos, J. (2018). Comparing simulator sickness in younger and older adults during simulated driving under different multisensory conditions. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology & Bahaviour, 54, 47-62. doi: 10.1016/j.trf.2018.01.007

Muth, E., Keshavarz, B., Smart, L. J., So, R., & Beadle, S. (2018). Discussion Panel: Motion Sickness in Virtual Environments. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 62(1), 2043–2046. Doi:10.1177/1541931218621461

2017

D’Amour, S., Bos, J. E., & Keshavarz, B. (2017). The efficacy of airflow and seat vibration on reducing visually induced motion sickness. Experimental Brain Research, 235(9), 2811-2820. doi:10.1007/s00221-017-5009-1


Keshavarz, B., Speck, M., Haycock, B., & Berti, S. (2017). The effect of different presentation settings on vection and its interaction with motion direction and Field Independence. iPerception, 8(3), 2041669517707768. doi:10.1177/2041669517707768


Keshavarz, B., Novak, A. C., Hettinger, L. J., Stoffregen, T. A., & Campos, J. L. (2017). Passive Restraint Reduces Visually Induced Motion Sickness in Older Adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 23(1), 85-99. doi:10.1037/xap0000107


Keshavarz, B., Campos, J. L., DeLucia, P. R., & Oberfeld, D. (2017). Estimating the relative weights of visual and auditory tau versus heuristic-based cues for time-to-contact judgments in realistic, familiar scenes by older and younger adults. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 79(3), 929-944. doi:10.3758/s13414-016-1270-9


Ramkhalawansingh, R., Keshavarz, B., Haycock, B., Shahab, S., & Campos, J. L. (2017). Examining the Effect of Age on Visual–Vestibular Self-Motion Perception Using a Driving Paradigm. Perception, 46(5), 566-585 (published online first 2016). doi:10.1177/0301006616675883

2016

Ramkhalawansingh, R., Keshavarz, B., Haycock, B., Shahab, S., & Campos, J. (2016). Age-related differences on visual-auditory self-motion perception. Frontiers in Psychology, 7: 595. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00595

Keshavarz, B. (2016). Exploring Behavioral Methods to Reduce Visually Induced Motion Sickness in Virtual Environments. In S. Lackey & R. Shumaker (Eds.), Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality (pp. 147–155). Springer International Publishing.

2015

Keshavarz, B., Campos, J., & Berti, S. (2015). Vection lies in the brain of the beholder: EEG parameters as an objective measurement of vection. Frontiers in Psychology, 6: 1581. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01581

Keshavarz, B., Riecke, B.E., Hettinger, L.J., & Campos, J.L. (2015). Vection and visually induced motion sickness: How are they related? Frontiers in Psychology, 6: 472. Doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00472


Keshavarz, B., Stelzmann, D., Paillard, A., & Hecht, H. (2015). Visually induced motion sickness can be alleviated by pleasant odors. Experimental Brain Research, 233(5), 1353-64.doi:10.1007/s00221-015-4209-9

2014

Hecht. H., Shaffer, D., Keshavarz, B., & Flint, M. (2014). Slope estimation and viewing distance of observer. Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 769(6), 1729-1738. doi:10.3758/s13414-014-0702-7


Keshavarz, B., Hettinger, L., Kennedy, R. S., & Campos, J. (2014). Demonstrating the potential for dynamic auditory stimulation to contribute to motion sickness. PLoS ONE, 9(7): e101016. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101016


Keshavarz, B. & Hecht, H. (2014). Pleasant music as a countermeasure against visually induced motion sickness. Applied Ergonomics, 45(3), 521-527. doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2013.07.009


Keshavarz, B., Hettinger, L., Vena, D., & Campos, J. (2014). Combined effects of auditory and visual cues on the perception of vection and motion sickness. Experimental Brain Research, 232(3), 827–836. doi:10.1007/s00221-013-3793-9


Keshavarz, B., & Berti, S. (2014). Integration of sensory information precedes the sensation of vection: A combined behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) study. Behavioural Brain Research, 259, 131–136. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2013.10.045

Keshavarz, B., Hecht, H., Lawson, B. D. (2014). Visually-Induced Motion Sickness: Causes, Characteristics, and Countermeasures. Stanney, K. M., & Hale, K. S. Handbook of virtual environments: Design, implementations, and applications. 2nd edition: 647-698.


Hettinger, L. J., Schmidt-Daly, T. N., Jones, D. L., Keshavarz, B. (2014). Illusory self-motion in virtual environments. Stanney, K. M., & Hale, K. S. Handbook of virtual environments: Design, implementations, and applications. 2nd edition: 435-465.

2012

Keshavarz, B., & Hecht, H. (2012). Stereoscopic viewing enhances visually induced motion sickness but sound does not. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 21(2), 213–228. doi:10.1162/PRES_a_00102

Keshavarz, B. Hecht, H. (2012). Visually induced motion sickness and presence in videogames: The role of sound. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 56(1): 1763-1767.

2011

Keshavarz, B., & Hecht, H. (2011). Axis rotation and visually induced motion sickness: the role of combined roll, pitch, and yaw motion. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 82(11), 1023–1029. doi:10.3357/ASEM.3078.2011


Keshavarz, B., & Hecht, H. (2011). Validating an efficient method to quantify motion sickness. Human Factors, 53(4), 415–426.


Keshavarz, B., Hecht, H., & Zschutschke, L. (2011). Keshavarz, B., Hecht, H., & Zschutschke, L. (2011). Intra-visual conflict in visually induced motion sickness. Displays, 32(4), 181–188. doi:10.1016/j.displa.2011.05.009

2010

Keshavarz, B., Landwehr, K., Baures, R., Oberfeld, D., Hecht, H., & Benguigui, N. (2010). Age-correlated incremental consideration of velocity. Ecological Psychology, 22(3), 212–221. doi:10.1080/10407413.2010.496670

 

INVITED TALKS AND PRESENTATIONS

Selected invited talks at conferences and institutions

AUDI AG

Research at KITE – Motion sickness in the context of (simulated) driving (2019). Ingolstadt, Germany

TECHNISCHE HOCHSCHULE INGOLSTADT

Driving simulation and motion sickness studies at KITE-Toronto Rehab (2019). Ingolstadt, Germany

JOHANNES GUTENBERG UNIVERSITY MAINZ

The benefits and challenges of Virtual Reality applications (2019). Mainz, Germany.

UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

Motion sickness in VR: Causes, characteristics, and treatments (2019). Vancouver, B.C.

SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY

Motion sickness in VR: Causes, characteristics, and treatments (2019. Vancouver, B.C.

FIRST CONGRESS ON MOTION SICKNESS

Visually Induced Motion Sickness: An overview [plenary lecture] (2019). First Congress on Motion Sickness and the 15th European Society for Clinical Evaluation of Balance Disorders Meeting, Akureyri, Iceland.

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON VESTIBULAR REHABILITATION

Causes and characteristics of visually induced motion sickness [plenary lecture] (2018). Chicago, IL, USA.

THE CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL OF PHILADELPHIA

Driving simulation studies and simulator sickness research at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute (2018). Center for Injury and Prevention at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA.

DAIMLER AG

Simulator sickness: Underlying causes and characteristics (2018). Sindelfingen, Germany.

HUMAN FACTORS AND ERGONOMICS SOCIETY ANNUAL MEETING

Motion Sickness in Virtual Environments [discussion panel] (2018). Philadelphia, PA, USA.

 

PROJECTS

Selected ongoing research studies

Image by Timo Müller
Image by Mario Calvo
Man%20retro%20car_edited.jpg

BODY TEMPERATURE AND MOTION SICKNESS

Airflow has been shown to successfully reduce motion sickness in VR. In this study, I want to investigate the mechanisms behind this effect by recording participants body temperature during a simulated driving task.

MULTISENSORY VECTION

Several sensory cues affect the sensation of self-motion in VR. Here, I will investigate how vision, hearing, and touching alters vection and whether this changes as we age.

DROWSY DRIVING

Drowsiness is one of the Top 5 causes for car crashes. The goal of this project is to identify the best physiological measure that can predict episodes of drowsiness while driving.

If you are interested in participating in my research studies, click on the button.

 
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©2019 by Behrang Keshavarz